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Brad Withrow-Robinson, Forestry & Natural Resources Extension Agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties.
I was given Norwegian Wood this summer. No, not the Beatles’ famous 1965 single about a John Lennon romance. The gift is a book about the Scandinavian romance with firewood. Its full title is “Norwegian Wood: chopping, stacking and drying wood the Scandinavian way” (by Lars Mytting). I loved it. I would probably hesitate to admit that to most people, but Tree Topics and Compass readers are not most people. You are wood people and will understand.
Norwegian Wood is an embrace of all things firewood. It delves into the historic Scandinavian reliance on wood to heat hearth and home when having enough wood on hand (at far northern latitudes) was a matter of life and death. That dependence seems to still shape the collective Scandinavian psyche. People there respect wood.
Mytting opens the book with a story of where his own journey of discovery about wood began, a story of an elderly neighbor for whom the annual ritual of putting in the wood was a tonic, giving him renewed purpose and energy. He goes on to describe the process of making firewood, the various kind of trees, the preferred tools (and some evolutionary history of chainsaws and axes), the advantages of different cutting, hauling, covering, stacking, stove design and fire building practices.
But especially stacking. The book abounds in handsome photos of woodpiles, with descriptions of the different methods of stacking. It also has analysis (including citation of studies by the Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology) of various approaches. The book includes stories of rural Norwegians, at least a couple octogenarians for whom making firewood remains a significant task, whatever the Doctor says. A person may get too old for many things, but not too old for stacking firewood it seems.
There is no question that for many Norwegians and Swedes, firewood is not just necessity. It is a matter of pride and even art. It is almost scary. Many people there, perhaps even the culture as a whole seems to be suffering from a particular form of the Wood Sickness.
So I recommend the book to anyone who uses wood, but does so with some degree of attachment beyond the mere utility of it. This book is for us. The topic is familiar, but the cultural context, tradition and ecological context (Scandinavia v Oregon) all make it fresh and entertaining reading that will give you new insight to something familiar.
The post Something to ponder while you enjoy that fire this winter appeared first on TreeTopics.
By Amy Grotta, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension – Columbia, Washington & Yamhill CountiesHappy fall!
For the fourth installment in our series on native shrubs that are beneficial to wildlife, I’ve chosen one that appropriate to the season, provides some nice fall color to our forests. Now I’ve met more than a few woodland owners who are not fans of vine maple; it’s not a favorite of those who prefer a tidy or parklike forest. Working or wandering in mature forests you’ve probably tripped over it or crawled under it and possibly cursed it under your breath. Nevertheless, vine maple is another of those “brush” species that benefits wildlife in numerous ways. With some tolerance for its rambling ways you can find a place for this species to provide that service on your woodland in concert with your other land management goals. If you are interested in enhancing wildlife habitat on your property, read on for our species profile.
Species name: Vine maple (Acer circinatum)
Description: A large, multi-stemmed large shrub or small tree. Like all maples, leaves are lobed like a fan or the palm of your hand (“palmate”) and in opposite arrangement on the branch; seeds are in winged pairs (“samaras”). The bark is smooth and greenish. Vine maple grows on moist sites in sun or shade, in regenerating to mature forests. In sun, its habit is denser and erect; seed production is more abundant, and leaves turn orange to red in fall. In a shady understory, it lives up to its name, with long spindly stems that arch to the ground and re-root upon contact. Fall foliage is less brilliant in the shade, and fewer seeds are produced.
Wildlife value: Vine maple is considered a preferred and nutritious summer forage for deer and elk. Elk continue to browse the twigs and buds in winter. Squirrels will cache the seeds for winter feeding. In open regenerating (i.e. early seral) areas, songbirds rely on deciduous shrubs such as vine maple for nesting cover and will forage for insects that feed on the foliage.
Management considerations: Vine maple is considered a “good shrub to leave behind”, or carry over from one timber rotation to the next to support early seral associated songbirds. Doing so, acknowledge that you’ll have to grant it a little real estate as it won’t play too well with little neighboring conifer seedlings. You don’t need a lot to make a difference. Leaving vine maple along the edges of patch cuts or in clumps with other retained shrubs reduces interference with planted trees. In mature stands, vine maple will fill in the understory after thinning or disturbances allow light to filter through the canopy, providing a food resource and cover for deer and elk.
Jensen, E. 2013. Shrubs to Know in Pacific Northwest Forests
Uchytil, R. 1989. Acer circinatum.
Oregon Forest Resources Institute. 2015. Wildlife in Managed Forests: Early Seral-Associated Songbirds
Woodland Fish & Wildlife. 2014. Managing for Deer and Elk on Small Woodlands.
By Amy Grotta and Brad Withrow-Robinson, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources ExtensionGroup mortality of Douglas-fir in May 2015. Douglas-fir beetle was found in all these trees. Photo Kara Shaw
We have certainly experienced some significant drought conditions lately. Stressed and dying trees are showing up all around the Willamette Valley, with concern that this could lead to beetle outbreaks and still more trees killed. Is it time to throw in the towel, cut your losses (so to speak) and just salvage everything that is looking poorly? Maybe, maybe not. The decision needs to be considered carefully, weighing individual sites and stand conditions along with your objectives for your property. Anybody considering a salvage harvest needs to look before they leap.
As we’ve discussed several times over the past few years, 2013-2015 were hard drought years and we continue to see the cumulative effects on our trees. Many trees, conifers in particular, have dead tops or have died outright. Since drought symptoms typically take a season or two to be expressed, what showed up this year is a result of damage from 2015. So far 2016 is proving to be a more normal year, though it remains to be seen how the fall and winter will play out. If we continue to get decent rainfall then we should start to see new damage taper off, but it’s too early to tell.
Beetles are a concern and both Extension and ODF have been getting plenty of calls about this. Yes, bark beetles have been more active in the Valley this year in drought-stressed stands. We expect this since beetles make their living off of dying trees, and are often seen more as a symptom than a cause of problems. Having drought stressed trees does not automatically mean bark beetles will come find them. And there are several types of bark beetles, some more damaging than others.Reddish frass in bark crevices is a sign of Douglas-fir beetle. Photo: B. Withrow-Robinson
That said, if you have trees that suffered partial damage a year or two ago, and then died completely this year, it is worth taking a closer look on these and surrounding live trees for signs and symptoms of bark beetles such as pitch streams, frass, and fading crowns on live trees. Fact sheets from the Oregon Department of Forestry on the Douglas-fir beetle and the fir engraver will help you. If you see something of concern you can contact the ODF Forest Health experts or your OSU Extension Agent for help (for backyard trees, call a certified arborist). Where there are significant numbers of beetles, landowners will be looking to sanitize their stands by removing infested trees before new adults emerge next spring.
This is where you want to exercise caution and be wary of door knockers.
Regrettably there is a history of shady operators approaching landowners telling them one story or another about their trees dying or markets disappearing and encouraging them to harvest trees “before it is too late”. It is invariably tied to an offer to take care of the problem for them. Unfortunately, the landscape is littered with stories of folks who have accepted those offers and sold off some timber they had not otherwise intended to sell, often for much less than it was worth.
We are aware of a number of small woodland owners in the Valley having received unsolicited offers to buy their timber as a way to mitigate drought damage. The “buyers” warn of all the trees damaged by drought being killed by beetles and being lost unless harvested, and encouraging people to sell and get some value before everything dies.
Unsolicited offers to buy timber are nothing new to small woodland owners, and we always advise to be wary of them. But this seems like a time to be particularly cautious.
An unsolicited buyer offering to assess the health of your trees for you is a clear conflict of interest and a definite red flag. One outcome could be the buyer exaggerating the potential for future loss, thereby convincing you to sell healthy trees you had no intention to log or to accept a lower price for the timber than you’d like (claiming that it’s “better than nothing”). Have a third party help you evaluate damage and if you think you want to proceed with salvage or sanitation harvest, move ahead as recommended with any harvest and seek bids from different operators.
You should realize that nobody knows the fate of these trees with any certainty. Drought conditions may be winding down, or may stick around for a while yet. Both choices – wait and see or do some preemptive salvage – involve risks that you need weigh. Don’t be driven by speculative claims about the trees dying, and do not panic. One or two beetle-killed trees in a stand is not an uncommon event and not a certain epidemic in the making. The decision to salvage needs to be well-timed and well-planned. Starting the job and then not finishing before beetles emerge in spring, or not properly dealing with slash, can make matters worse instead of better. Applying pheromone caps is another option to protect healthy trees if beetle-infested material cannot be removed in a timely manner.
So, suppose that you’ve done your homework and decide that salvaging drought-damaged or insect-damaged trees is in your best interest and meets your property objectives. You still have some due diligence to take care of. Get bids and ask the logger for references, go see his past jobs and talk with people who worked with him. Contact ODF to find out if there are any past violations, or the Association of Oregon Loggers for information on their credentials. Finally, insist on a written contract. Consult these publications for more guidance: Small Scale Harvesting for Woodland Owners and Contracts for Woodland Owners.
A final note, landowners in Linn, Benton and Lane Counties can sign up receive Emergency Forest Restoration Funds to remove drought-killed trees through the Farm Services Agency. More info here (scroll down). Folks in the northern Valley counties can get in touch with their local FSA to check on the availability of funds.