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Knapweed

Fri, 08/21/2015 - 11:28am

By Amy Grotta, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension – Columbia, Washington & Yamhill Counties

Like just about any small woodland, the Matteson Demonstration Forest has its share of invasive weeds. Besides familiar and ubiquitous foes such as Scotch broom and thistles, one of particular concern is knapweed.

Meadow knapweed, photo by Eric Coombs, OR Dept of Ag, bugwood.org

With purple flowers emerging from roundish bases at the top of a tall stalk, knapweeds superficially resemble a sort of spineless thistle, and in fact they are relatives of thistles, botanically speaking. They are biennial (2-year life cycle) to perennial plants and reproduce by seed. Fairly inconspicuous in the winter and spring; at this time of year, their purple flowers betray their location on and along roadbeds and other disturbed areas.

There are several species of knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) in Oregon, and all are classified as noxious weeds. Meadow knapweed, actually a hybrid of two other species, seems to be the most prevalent in the Willamette Valley.   Spotted knapweed is more of a problem on the eastside though has been documented on the westside too.

These two species can be tricky to tell apart, but we think we have meadow knapweed at Matteson, based on its wider distribution on the westside, the shape of the foliage and the color of the bracts (the tiny scale-like leaves at the base of the flowers).

So why are knapweeds a problem in forestlands? The biggest concern is their impact to native plant communities. They are tough competitors that can crowd out other desirable herbaceous plants, posing particular challenges to pasture or grassland managers, or those trying to restore meadows or oak savannahs. Even for those that do not have those particular objectives for their property, knapweeds are “road runners” in that they are easily spread by foot and vehicle traffic along roads and trails. So if you find that you have a knapweed infestation on your property, you can do surrounding property owners a favor by keeping it in check.

On the Matteson tract, knapweed is largely confined to gravel roads and open areas along the roads. Our main concern is limiting the spread of the weed, not only on this property but also to other College Forests and to other properties. For that reason, we are trying to keep OSU College Forest vehicles off the property as much as possible, so that tires and vehicle undersides do not pick up the seeds.  Multi-year herbicide treatments will also likely be necessary to reduce knapweed on the property; although because the weed is also prevalent along the county road ringing Hagg Lake, we may be fighting an uphill battle. We will be regularly surveying where our access roads join up with county roads and neighbors to contain and prevent its spread.

Roadbed infestation of knapweed with flowers and maturing seed heads, August 2015. Same road last October, showing mature seeds.

For more on knapweed management, consult these fact sheets: Invasive Weeds in Forestlands: Knapweeds from OSU Extension and Meadow Knapweed Best Management Practices from the King County Noxious Weed Program.

Thanks to Michelle Delepine from West Multnomah SWCD for her helpful expertise on this subject.

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Speaking of the weather…

Fri, 07/31/2015 - 3:00pm

By Amy Grotta, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension – Columbia, Washington & Yamhill Counties

I don’t need to tell you it’s hot out there today. (Oops! I just did. Sorry.)

Between the extreme heat and the very real fire danger, it’s not a good afternoon to be working in the woods.  Rarely do I say I’d rather be in the office than in the field, but today is one of those days that I’m appreciating the air conditioning.

Since everyone is talking about the weather anyhow, it seems appropriate to share some reading material that relates to it, which you can enjoy in the comfort of whatever cool spot you’ve found today.  Oregon Forests and Climate Change is the subject of a little writing project which a number of my Extension colleagues have taken on as a group.

Why this project?  OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension strives to provide objective, science-based education to help forest owners succeed in forest stewardship. The growing body of climate science means that a basic understanding of climate and climate variability are needed to guide key aspects of stewardship of managed forests, such as:

  • selecting appropriate tree species and types of forest,
  • determining the timing of management actions such as planting and thinning,
  • estimating rates of growth and productivity, and
  • anticipating climatic stress and threats to forest health.

We realize there are still a lot of unknowns that go along with all this, so our intention is not to be prescriptive but rather to explore what some of the key issues might be. We’re learning as we go and sharing what we learn through a series of short articles.  The first set of these stories are available to read now over on the Oregon Forests & Climate Change blog. To set the stage, we get some perspectives on the subject of climate change from a woodland owner who also happens to be a forest geneticist working in the timber industry.

Crater Lake snowpack in July circa 1915. Photo credit: TheOldMotor.com

The next three articles address some of the basic principles of climate science. One looks at Oregon’s weather and climate as we’ve experienced it in our lifetimes vs. what is projected for the future. The next uses snowfall at Crater Lake as an example, in analyzing long term trends vs. year-to-year fluctuations in our weather. Finally, we look at some of the underlying factors that create these fluctuations, such as the El Niño cycle we are in right now.

These articles lay the foundation for the next phase of our project, in which we’ll be exploring how our forests respond to climate variability, extremes, and long-term change, and how we as managers can respond in turn. Stay tuned over the next year or so as we continue.

Of course, climate change can be a loaded subject and discussions about the topic can quickly grow rather heated. (I could not resist that pun…) We will be staying above the fray and look objectively at what anticipated changes may – or may not – mean on the ground, here in Oregon. So grab another icy drink and click here for more.

Thanks to the USDA Pacific Northwest Climate Hub and the Oregon Forest Resources Institute for providing financial support for this ongoing project.

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Reflections from the Trail

Fri, 07/10/2015 - 10:36am

Brad Withrow-Robinson, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties.

I recently did a backpacking trip with my daughter, about a 12 year long summer tradition. This year we did a section of the Pacific Crest Trail starting at the California border, travelling “north” to Howard Prairie Reservoir. We actually travelled much farther east than north, ending up only about 10 miles north of California after 55 miles on the trail.
This was really the first time I spent much time in the Siskiyous. I have always heard great things about that landscape from friends and colleagues who have worked or played down there.
The landscape, geology and soils of that region are quite diverse and often quite different from other parts of the state. We spent time hiking through very interesting and diverse mixed conifer forests and meadows with many familiar as well as unfamiliar shrubs and flowers. We really enjoyed the chance to experience the Siskiyous for ourselves. On this dry year, we saw no snow and had pretty long stretches between water. But mosquitos were scarce.
Another rather unusual characteristic of this section of the PCT is the relatively large amount of private lands traversed. Much of the Oregon PCT travels through National Forest lands. In Southern Oregon we were in part of the checkerboard of BLM and private lands. It turns out that I know a few of those private family landowners who have long been encouraging us hike that section.
Jud Parsons met us at his gate at the end of our second day on the trail with a smile and jug of fresh water. He then gave us a tour of the family’s property near Mount Ashland. Jud has a great knowledge and deep connection to this land, most of which was purchased by his grandfather over a hundred years ago. We rumbled around in the old Chevy looking at a recent selective harvest, visiting some favorite trees, talking about history and a century of family ties to the land in southern Oregon. That history included the establishment of the ski road and also the PCT, of which the family hosts about two or three miles as it passes back and forth between their property and the BLM. Just a couple of weeks earlier, he had hiked his section of the trail with a chainsaw to clear the trail of a tangle of snags that came down in a winter storm. The trail is now part of that land and its stewardship.
I imagine some of you are beginning to feel sorry for me, or certainly my daughter, for interrupting a perfectly good wilderness experience for a busman’s holiday to a family forestland. Don’t be. Visiting a place, woodland or other, with somebody so familiar with and having such deep roots to a place has always been a cherished experience for me, and for my daughter too. We loved the visit with Jud on his property, and already look back at it as one of the highlights of the trip due to all the new dimensions it added.
The visit gave us a perspective that is inaccessible to most hikers on the PCT who often dash along the trail unaware of the ecological, social or historical context of the land they pass through. This is understandable since they have to rely on a sparse, landscape-impoverished guidebook, much to their loss. I am once again grateful for the chance to work with the landowner community, which affords me so many pleasures and benefits – including a jug of water and patch of cherished ground to camp on.

 

 

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Put down those pruning shears

Wed, 07/08/2015 - 11:56am

Brad Withrow-Robinson, Forestry & Natural Resources Extension Agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties

I recently got a call from a fellow whose Douglas-fir trees were covered with globs of pinkish pitch. It looked kind of like candle wax drippings on a Chianti bottle in some Italian restaurant, except it was on the trunks of his trees. As we talked I discovered that it was not an old stand, and the landowner had been out during the nice weather last summer and pruned his trees up six or eight feet to make it easier to get around and to reduce the risk of fire down near the County road. The pitch blobs were at the pruning scars.

Pitch moth evidence on off-site ponderosa pine

The culprit here is the Sequoia pitch moth (Synanthedon sequoia), a common clear-winged moth that attacks many conifer species.

Although commonly seen in town in people’s shore pine and other ornamental pine species, it is not generally a problem on Douglas-fir, or native Valley ponderosa pine except when the tree is wounded. A common and very attractive wound is easily created by pruning live branches during the summer months (April thru September) when the bark is soft and the adult moth is active. Although unlikely to kill your trees it is unsightly and generally avoidable.

Prevention is the best cure.

So this summer, put down those pruning shears. Save that job for the winter months.

 

Have an image of pitch moth on Douglas-fir you would like to share? email brad.w-r@oregonstate.edu

Fresh pitch moth evidence on an ornamental pine

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Mapping your forest with Google Earth and a GPS phone app

Tue, 06/09/2015 - 11:56am

By Amy Grotta, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension – Columbia, Washington, & Yamhill Counties

This must be the end of the road…

One of the first orders of business on the Matteson Demonstration Forest is getting to know the lay of the land.  180 acres is a lot to get to know!  As is the case with any new woodland owner, we need a map to help orient ourselves while on the property, and to keep track of where different roads and trails lead.

Eventually, the OSU College Forests staff will create a GIS map of the Matteson Forest with various spatial layers – property boundaries, roads, forest types, culverts, and so forth.  In the meantime, I’ve been using Google Earth to create my own map, adding information as I continue to explore the tract.  While in the woods, I’ve been using a GPS app on my smartphone to keep track of where I am and to record points and paths. In this article I’ll describe how I’ve been using these two applications, which I think would be useful to most woodland owners who don’t have GIS at their fingertips.

Some woodland owners are already familiar with Google Earth. For those that are not, Tristan Huff (OSU Extension Forester on the south coast) has developed a useful tutorial for landowners.  I recommend the Pro version of Google Earth, which is now available for free (a recent change).  In addition to all the standard features of Google Earth, the Pro version shows tax lot boundaries and allows you to calculate the area of a polygon that you draw.  This enabled me to draw the Matteson property boundaries on my map with reasonable accuracy, by tracing the taxlot lines.

Yellow polygon approximates the property boundary. Google Earth Pro

On a recent visit to the Matteson Forest my goal was to map the roads and trails in the southern half of the property.  Major roads stand out on the aerial photo, but walking the tract we’ve come across numerous secondary roads, trails and a small pond that are obscured by the canopy when looking at  the aerial image.

Mature timber in the southwest section obscures roads and trails in this aerial view. My iPhone GPS proved to be at least as precise as this handheld GPS receiver.

A GPS receiver can be used to map them. GPS receivers vary widely in their accuracy, especially under tree canopy; the most accurate systems are quite costly.  Even a consumer-grade GPS receiver, which might be accurate to around 50 ft under tree canopy, can cost several hundred dollars.  But, if you are one of the two-thirds of American adults that has a smartphone, you already have a GPS receiver built in.  Why not use it?

Doing some research I came across Motion X-GPS, an iPhone app available for the bargain price of 99 cents.  Motion X-GPS uses your phone’s GPS receiver to track your location.  This works in places where you don’t get a phone signal.  You can record tracks and points as you move about. You can even take photos and associate them with a place or track.

Motion X-GPS has good tutorials on their website, so I won’t go into much detail here on how to the app in the field.  Below are two screenshots from my phone, showing a waypoint and a track that I recorded.

After I was done for the day, the next step was to get these features from my phone into Google Earth.  In Motion X-GPS you can share locations, tracks and waypoints to an email address.  I simply emailed the tracks to myself.

Opening up the .kmz attachment automatically opens the feature in Google Earth.  From there I could save it to my map of the property.  Here is my Google Earth map now, with all the features that I mapped in the field imported and saved.

In summary, I give Google Earth Pro and Motion X-GPS two thumbs up.  I’ve been using the latter for biking and running as well.  To conserve my phone’s battery charge while in the field, I turned off the cellular receiver (there’s little to no cell signal on the Matteson Forest anyhow).  Using the GPS app for 90 minutes consumed about 40% of my battery.  Unfortunately, Motion X-GPS is not available for Android devices, but there are other GPS tracking apps that function similarly and are Android compatible.

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Many Douglas-fir with dead tops and branches in the Willamette Valley this year

Tue, 05/05/2015 - 5:53pm

By Brad Withrow-Robinson, Forestry & Natural Resources Extension Agent, Benton, Linn and Polk Counties

Young Douglas-fir trees with dying branches or tops turning brown, then red have become a common sight all around the Willamette Valley this spring. What is going on?

This “flare out” of branches and tops are classic drought symptoms in Douglas-fir, which we are linking to last year’s weather when we had a particularly long, dry and very hot period late in the summer. Late season drought injuries to the stem and leader do not always show up when they occur, but often express themselves the following spring as trees start to grow. We have these drought damage events from time to time here in the valley, most recently in 2013 and again before that around 2000. Older trees typically have milder symptoms, but the many older, flat-topped Douglas-fir trees you see are a reflection of past droughts and non-fatal damage.

It is important to keep in mind that the Willamette Valley can be a challenging environment for trees. Summers are significantly hotter and drier in the Valley than in the mountains, and we have many poorly drained or shallow soils that are not well-suited to many kinds of trees. So, we tend to see most drought stress damage on more marginal sites, where wet or shallow soils limit tree root growth, water availability, or both. It is also often more common in younger trees (20 years and younger) whose root system may be having trouble keeping up with rapid expansion of their crowns.

Heat and drought can kill trees outright, or often just put the trees under stress. Stress can then lead to problems with secondary pests (including insects such as the twig weevil and diseases such as stem cankers) which take advantage of a stressed tree’s weakened condition. Right now we are mostly seeing the effects of drought in Douglas-fir, but can probably expect to see problems emerge among some other conifers as the year progresses, especially if we stay as dry as we are now. Let’s hope for some more rain!

For more information:

Here are two good articles from the ODF Forest Health team. They are a few years old but very relevant, explaining Dead tops and Branches (with good pictures)  and about Drought and Mortality.

More photos below.

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Woodland owner and canine companion “dig deep” into truffle hunting

Mon, 05/04/2015 - 1:31pm

By Brandy Saffell, Education Program Assistant, OSU Forestry & Natural Resources Extension

Part I: Gucci and the Joriad

OSU Master Woodland Manager Marilyn Richen and her family own forest land in Columbia County. Her story about Gucci, her yellow lab, and the Joriad Truffle Hunting Competition is a modern day retelling of The Ugly Duckling.

Gucci was born into a training program for Guide Dogs for the Blind. Sadly, she could not stay in the program because of scavenging behaviors (i.e. seeking out and nabbing food). The upside of this otherwise disappointing situation was that Marilyn and her partner, Tammy Jackson, could officially adopt Gucci. They decided, though, that they desperately needed to find some sort of activity or training to help focus Gucci’s excessive energy.

Marilyn Richen’s dog, Gucci, on a forest truffle hunt (Photo: Jeannine May)

This is where truffles enter the tale. Truffles are fungi that develop underground in symbiotic association with the roots of trees; they are also a culinary delicacy. Marilyn has had an interest in truffles for many years and has attended several truffle classes including those offered at Tree School and through the Oregon Woodland Cooperative. She was also aware of truffle hunting with dogs but did not have a dog to train until Gucci came along. Could truffle hunting be a way to channel Gucci’s energy into something productive?

In 2013, Marilyn, Tammy, and Gucci began working with a truffle dog trainer, Jeannine May. The training regime involved weekly practice with Jeannine and then daily reinforcement of the skills that she taught.  Gucci was finding truffles in the wild regularly by the end of the truffle season (roughly December through February). This past season, Gucci went out truffle hunting once or twice per week, gradually improving her ability to identify truffles and dig them up. The time had come to put Gucci’s sniffer to the test against other dogs.

Marilyn and Tammy entered Gucci in the Joriad, a North American Truffle Dog Competition event. Gucci passed with flying colors in the qualifying rounds, which took place in an arena filled with hidden truffle-scented objects. She proceeded with five other competitors to the final field round: a foggy, dense Christmas tree farm near Eugene. Each contender embarked on their own in the woods, searching for as many wild truffles as they could find in one hour. Gucci won, and although the results were not made public, she was rumored to have found more than twice the number of truffles than the second runner-up. Our champion, Gucci, had undergone her transformation from the storybook ugly duckling into a truffle-hunting swan.

Gucci and Marilyn in a qualifying round at the Joriad Truffle Dog Competition (Photo: Jeannine May)

Part II: Opportunities for Landowners

When I consider this story about Gucci, I see an opportunity for landowners to embrace truffles as a non-timber forest product. Truffle hunting has been a tradition in southern Europe for centuries and remain a highly esteemed product up there with foie gras and caviar. Although there are thousands of truffle varieties, the most widely known and prized are French black perigords and Italian whites. The market value of European black and white truffles can be anywhere from $1,000 to $3,000 per pound. In the U.S., truffles grow especially well in the mild climate of the Pacific Northwest, primarily west of the Cascades. Oregon has its own native black and white truffles and peak production is found in dense, coastal Douglas-fir stands, around 15 to 25 years old. Despite the fact that these stands are common throughout our region, only a small percentage of the potential truffle crop is harvested each year (about 13,500 pounds). Part of the reason is that most commercially productive truffle habitat is on privately owned lands, but more importantly, the truffle market in Oregon is largely undeveloped.

In recent years, Oregon black and white truffles have been valued at around $320 and $220 per pound, respectively; much lower than their European relatives. Poor quality control has been suggested as one factor in the lower value of Oregon truffles. A large proportion of our truffles are harvested by raking the surface of the forest floor to uncover the hidden crop. Raking typically unearths immature truffles, which lack the savory taste that develops with ripeness. In turn, Oregon truffles have earned a bad name as less potent than European varieties.

Oregon white truffles (Photo: Francis Storr)

Marilyn has found both black and white truffles on her 450 acres, but only a few ounces here and there. “For now, it’s a hobby,” she says. But she and Tammy see the potential for profit from truffling in Oregon, which is still a very young science. They excitedly share with me that they have found truffles far outside peak season and sometimes even in atypical forest habitat. “This is where training dogs can be useful,” says Tammy. They only find mature truffles (so there is inherent quality control) and will tell you what is out there on your property throughout the year.

So what are some options for landowners to explore? You can look into training your own dog and explore the potential of your property. You could also lease your property to truffle hunters and take a share of the profits or agree upon a flat fee. Consider using a harvest permit and products sale document with your hunters. Another interesting possibility is hosting truffle forays, which are high-end events where a small group will pay to be led on a truffle hunt with dogs on the property followed by a chef curated, truffle-themed dinner. You can also look into cultivating truffles, a process that requires heavy investment but can potentially yield large quantities. For more information about Oregon truffles and other non-timber forest products: http://ntfpinfo.us/publications/index.html.

Editor’s note: since this article was written, the South County Spotlight also wrote an article about Marilyn and Gucci. 

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