CORVALLIS, Ore. – If the thought of green chile salsa makes your mouth water, consider designing a salsa garden for next summer.
Kimberly Culbertson, who volunteers in dual roles as a Master Gardener and Master Food Preserver trained by the Oregon State University Extension Service, dishes up suggestions for a garden blueprint starring short-season tomatoes, peppers and tomatillos. The three are cousins in the same family.
Culbertson, who cultivates a front-yard garden at her Hillsboro home, is passionate about teaching people how to safely preserve their harvest.
"Before I took the Master Food Preserver class, I was scared to use a pressure canner,” Culbertson said. “But the class taught me the principles of how to use it and gave me hands on experience. I was able to do demonstrations for the public and offered hands-on classes on making your own salsa, jams and jellies. I give people recipes that have been tested to be safe on the shelf for a couple of years. That's so important because every couple of years you hear about cases of botulism on the rise."
Botulism is a preventable but sometimes-fatal illness caused by toxins from a bacterium that can live in improperly canned or preserved foods. On average, 145 cases annually are reported in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
For tomatoes – that salsa luminary – Culbertson recommends sauce and paste style varieties, especially Italian plum types and Romas. Her best bets include San Marzano plums, Grande Marzano, Cordova, Nova, Principe Borghese and Oregon Star. Choose tomatoes with firmer flesh and low water content; watery beefsteaks tend to lose flavor when cooked and produce thin salsa.
"When buying seeds or starts, look at how many days the tomatoes take to reach maturity," Culbertson said. "We only have an 85-90 day season here, especially west of the Cascades. You need something that sets up soon enough in the season. You can make green tomato salsa and some people have a taste for that, but it's not everybody's taste."
Oregon's clay soil tends to contain too much acidity and too little calcium to make tomatoes happy, so Culbertson advises adding about a tablespoon or two of lime to the soil around the roots when you plant the tomatoes and later in the growing season if it rains. Be sure to train tomatoes to a stake or cage for proper air circulation. They should be planted in a location that gets at least 10 hours of full sun.
As for peppers, Culbertson suggests a good short-season Thai pepper called Ascent that is spicy and productive. Other pepper possibilities include Planet, Jimmy Nardello, Early Jalapeno and Anaheim. Early bell peppers such as California Wonder also have robust flavor. Selecting different peppers or a combination of peppers, as long as the quantity called for in the recipe is followed, can modify the heat of the salsa. It is good to wear gloves when handling peppers.
For tomatillos, Culbertson enjoys the Miltomate and Mexican Strain. These bushy plants need room to grow, at least three feet. The fruit of tomatillos is encased in a papery husk. Native to Mexico, this ancient vegetable, a must for many traditional salsas, was cultivated by the Aztecs around 800 B.C.
When your harvest is ready, Culbertson urges salsa aficionados to rely on a tested recipe and follow all ingredient proportions. The vinegar or lemon juice listed in the recipe is key to maintaining the appropriate acidity level. These precautions will keep you safe.
To learn more, download the following publications from OSU Extension:
- Grow Your Own Tomatoes
- Cultive sus propios tomates
- Grow Your Own Peppers
- Cultive sus propios chiles
- Growing Your Own
Additionally, OSU Extension and partners provide these publications about food preservation and safety:
- Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
- Salsa Recipes for Canning
- Recetas para el Envasado de Salsas
- Using and Caring for Your Pressure Canner
- Drying Fruits and Vegetables
- Freezing Fruits and Vegetables
Master Food Preservers operate a food preservation and safety hotline at 1-800-354-7319 from July 15 to Oct. 11 and Nov. 18-22 and 25-27. Find more food preservation resources from OSU Extension's Family and Community Health unit at http://extension.oregonstate.edu/community/food-preservation. Connect with your local Master Gardeners at Local OSU Master Gardener Programs.