SPECIES

Bigleaf Maple pngBIGLEAF MAPLE (Acer macrophylum)

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A broadleaf tree with moderate growth rates, reaches 100’ tall and 2’ diameter on good sites.  Long lived.   Found along moister lowland Jackson & Josephine County streams and on other fairly  moist, cool sites.  Excellent for shade, wildlife, and a soil builder.  Unlike many other streamside species in this guide, bigleaf maple is shade tolerant and can be planted underneath the canopy of other trees, though growth will be slow.

PLANTING:
Planted as a bare root or container seedling. Seldom planted as a cutting.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Produces abundant seed crops.  Sprouts vigorously from the stump after cutting.

  • Streamside Planting Zone:  2-3             
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  HIGH

BLACK COTTONWOOD (Populus trichocarpa)

MORE PICTURESBlack Cottonwood

A fast growing, broadleaf tree, reaching over 150’ tall and 3’ diameter on good sites. Short-lived.  Prefers moist but well drained soils. Typically found along streams and on floodplains.  Very common in Jackson & Josephine County lowland streamside areas.  Well suited for shade and bank stabilization. 

A hybrid poplar is a black cottonwood crossed with another cottonwood species, such as eastern cottonwood. Hybrid cottonwoods may grow even faster than our native cottonwood, but are not necessarily as well adapted to the local environment, as one of the parents is non-native.

PLANTING: 
Often planted as a cutting and sometimes as a rooted cutting.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Re-sprouts vigorously from stumps or roots after cutting or fire. Small branches that break off a tree can float downstream and take root in moist soils.  Female trees produces millions of lightweight seeds (the “cotton” of cottonwood)  that can be carried for long distances by wind or  water.
  • Streamside Planting Zones:  1-2.  Sometimes found in Zone 3 on larger streams or rivers when subsurface moisture is abundant.   
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

ChokecherryCHOKECHERRY (Prunus Virginiana)

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A large broadleaf shrub or small tree.  Often thicket- forming.  Produces abundant fruit for birds and other wildlife.  Foliage provides attractive fall color.

Very abundant in many lowland streamside areas.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings, not widely available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:  
Regenerates from seed, generally dispersed by animals. 
Also re-sprouts from the base after cutting or fire.
  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

 


Douglas Fir

DOUGLAS-FIR (Psuedotsuga menziesii)

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Moderate to fast growth rates, may reach over 4’ in diameter and 175’ tall at maturity.  Long-lived.  Though abundant in upland areas, Douglas-fir is uncommon in lowland riparian areas of the interior Rogue Valley.  It is generally a poor candidate for planting in these areas because it tolerates neither flooding nor hot, dry conditions. 

PLANTING:
Frequently planted as a bare-root seedling.  Container stock may also be available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
By seed only.  Seed production is sporadic.  Germination is best on mineral soil.
  • Streamside Planting Zone:  3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  LOW
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

Douglas-spiraea

Douglas-spiraea (Spiraea douglasii)

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Douglas-spiraea is primarily a wetland plant,
with beautiful steeple-shaped flower clusters, which give it its other name, steeplebush.

PLANTING: 

Mostly container seedlings, not widely
available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates primarily through sprouting
from underground stems, called rhizomes.  
  • Streamside Planting Zone:  1
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

Klamath plumKlamath plum (Prunus subcordota)

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Large shrub or small tree.  Thicket forming. Fruit edible, valuable for wildlife.  Not       common. Found in interior of Rogue Valley.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings, not widely available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates from seed, generally disperse by animals.  Also resprouts from the base after cutting or fire.
  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

Mock-orange

Mock-orange (Philedelphus lewisii)

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A broadleaf shrub, very common in streamside areas and found in the understory (beneath the canopy of trees). Good cover and erosion control. Has attractive white flowers.

PLANTING: 
Mostly container seedlings.
NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates from seed and by sprouting from the base after cutting or breakage.
  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

 

 

 

 

 

 


Oregon ashOregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)

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A slow-growing broadleaf tree, grows to over 75' tall and 2' in diameter on good sites. Longer lived than alder or cottonwood.  Very common in Jackson and Josephine County lowland streamside areas.  Ash is tolerant of poorly drained soils and so is found in swamps and wetlands.  Good for shade and bank stabilization; an especially good species for swampy, poorly drained sites.

PLANTING:

Most often planted as a bare root or container seedling.  Compared to some other broadleaf
trees in this guide, it does not root
well from cutting.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
A heavy seeder. Seeds dessiminated by wind, germinate best in moist, rich soil in organic matter. Sprouts from the stump after cutting or fire.

  • Streamside Planting Zones: 1-3                         
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

Oregon crabapple

Oregon crabapple (Malus fusca)

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A large thicket-forming broadleaf shrub or small tree. Fruit are edible but sour. Great species for wildlife.  Foliage provides attractive fall color.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings, not widely available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates from seed generally dispersed by animals. Also resprouts from the base after cutting or fire.
  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3                              
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

 

Pacific ninebark (Physocarpus capitatus)

Pacific ninebark

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A broadleaf shrub, common in streamside areas and found in the understory (beneath the canopy of trees). It provides cover for wildlife and erosion control, and has attractive white flowers in late spring.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings, not widely available. Also can be grown from 1-year old cuttings.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates from seed, by resprouting from the base after cutting or breakage, and from spreading underground stems called rhizomes.

  • Streamside Planting Zone:  1-2
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) 

MORE PICTURES  Ponderosa pine

Slow to moderate growth rates, may reach over 3’ in diameter and 150’ tall at maturity.  Long-lived.  Very heat and drought tolerant but also somewhat tolerant of seasonally flooded or poorly drained soils.  Not common along interior Jackson County streams but may have been more abundant on these sites historically.  Frequently planted on zone 3 terraces because it is one of the few species that will survive there.  Good long term source of woody debris.

PLANTING:
Frequently planted as a bare-root seedling.  Container stock may also be available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
By seed only.  Good seed years occur every 4-6 years.  Germination is best on mineral soil.

  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  HIGH

Red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)

MORE PICTURES       Red-osier dogwood

Broadleaf shrub found in streamside areas. Flood tolerant.  Redtwig dogwood has bright red stems that are especially visible during winter. Also known as creek dogwood.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings. Can also be grown from cuttings.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates from seed, by resprouting from the root crown or roots, and through layering (rooting from buried branches).

  • Streamside Planting Zones:  1-2
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

 

 


Sandbar willow (Salix exigua)        Sandbar willow

There are several willow species native to the Rogue Valley.  Coyote and red willow are two of the most common.  Coyote willow is a large broadleaf shrub, while red willow grows to tree size. 

 Willows are very well suited for streamside plantings because they root easily from cuttings, grow rapidly, develop dense root systems, and are very tolerant of flooding.  They are not tolerant of shade or drought, however.   Cuttings must be planted deep enough to access the mid-summer water table or survival will be poor. 

PLANTING:
Most often planted as cutting, though container seedlings may be available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Both species re-sprout from the base of the plant (the root crown) after cutting or breakage.  Broken branch fragments can root when deposited on exposed, wet soils. 

Red willow regenerates primarily from thousands of tiny, windblown seeds. 
Coyote willow  produces sucker shoots from roots,  and roots from buried stems.  In this manner a single plant can spread and colonize a large area.
  • Streamside Planting Zone:  1-2. 
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

SNOWBERRY (Symphoricarpos albus)  

          MORE PICTURES   Snowberry

Snowberry is a small, erect shrub found in the understory in both upland and streamside areas. It provides cover and its spreading habit makes it useful for erosion control. Very abundant.

PLANTING:
Mostly container seedlings. Not widely available.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Regenerates primarily through sprouting from underground stems, called rhizomes.

  • Streamside Planting Zones:  2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding:  MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to drought:  MEDIUM

 

 

 

 


White alderWHITE ALDER  (Alnus rhombifolia)

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Alder is very intolerant of drought. It requires summer watering to get established, unless planted deep enough for the roots to access the mid-summer water table. Well suited for shade and bank stabilization.

White alder is a broadlead tree reaching over 75' tall and 2' diameter on good sites.  Moderate growth rates.  Short lived (typically 75 years or less). Prefers moist but well-drained soils. Typically found near running water, and one of the most abundant streamside species found in the lowland areas of Jackson and Josephine Counties.

Red alder is similar to white alder but generally found in cooler areas with higher precipitation. Where the ranges of the two species overlap they may hybridize.

PLANTING:
Most often planted as a bare root or container seedling.
Compared to some other broad-
leaf species, it does not root well
from cuttings.

NATURAL REGENERATION:
Resprouts from stumps when young after cutting or fire.  Resprouting vigor declines as trees age.  Produces abundant seed, which is carried by wind.  Regenerates thickly on mineral soil.

  • Streamside Planting Zones:  1 (usually), Zone 2 where subsurface moisture is abundant)
  • Tolerance to flooding:  HIGH
  • Tolerance to shade:  LOW
  • Tolerance to drought:  LOW

 

 


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