Below are references with a brief description used to compile the factsheets. Each factsheet has a list of references to consult for the particular facility.
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). (2001). Guide for Best Management Practice (BMP) Selection in Urban Developed Areas. Urban Water Infrastructure Management Committee's Task Committee for Evaluating Best Management Practices. Reston, VI.
This guide addresses several BMPs and covers aspects of land availability, pollutant removal, groundwater levels, soil types, BMP cost, maintenance costs, and desired pollutant removal efficiency of each. It was used mostly for porous pavement information.
Arnold, J.A., ed., D.E. Line, S. W. Coffey, and J. Spooner. 1993. Stormwater Management Guidance Manual. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service and North Carolina Division of Environmental Management. Raleigh, N.C.
A bit older, yet includes chapters on general stormwater management, discussing its importance, legal requirements such as obtaining a permit (although the flow chart may be specific to NC, the general concept and process is applicable nationally), and general cost considerations. Arnold also provides a synopsis of several BMPs including some not reviewed in the SWAMP project. Useful sections of these factsheets include brief but informative insights to relative costs of individual BMPs, advantages and disadvantages, pollutant removal tables (ranked low to very high) and uncertainties of functionality at the time of publication. There are usually several black and white design drawings of each BMP.
Barr Engineering Company (Barr) (2001). Minnesota Urban Small Sites BMP Manual: Stormwater Best Management Practices for Cold Climates. Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, St. Paul, MN. Available Online: http://www.metrocouncil.org/environment/Watershed/bmp/manual.htm
This manual was used primarily for individual BMP descriptions and was most useful for its pollutant removal summarization. Most BMPs included in the SWAMP factsheets are included here, along with some more conventional practices such as detention ponds. Chapter 2: Selecting BMPs, discusses concepts to review prior to development and provides a few matrices for BMP selection.
Bureau of Environmental Serves (BES) (2006). Lower Columbia River: Field Guide to Water Quality Friendly Development – Techniques & Examples. Retrieved February 2009, from http://www.lcrep.org/fieldguide/techniques.htm.
This webpage, created by the Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership, offers several water quality resources. The Field Guide, used for the SWAMP project, provided information for several of the BMPs in a 2 page downloadable factsheet. Additionally, the Field Guide offers photograph examples of each BMP in the local area complete with address, owner and contact as well as a brief description. The website is a very useful local resource. The factsheets are brief and often refer the user to the Portland Stormwater Manual.
City of Portland: Bureau of Environmental Services (PSMM). (2008) Portland Stormwater Management Manual. Portland, OR. Available Online at: http://www.portlandonline.com/BES/index.cfm?c=47952
The City of Portland is well known for its leadership in a greener stormwater system and has just recently updated their manual. Chapter 2: Facility Design provides a synopsis of several BMPs included in SWAMP. This was the most commonly used chapter, although some of the appendices were also used for BMPs selection methodology and infiltration information. The manual is user friendly and clear, yet often conservative erring on the side of caution. This often times may limit the use of LID BMPs when they are in fact applicable.
Center for Watershed Protection, Inc. (SMRC). (2009) Stormwater Manager's Resource Center (SMRC) Website: http://www.stormwatercenter.net/ Elliott City, MD.
This website has several LID BMPs and also includes some of the conventional stormwater management facilities. The factsheets are thorough with several charts regarding maintenance and pollutant removal, easy to read and there are also several sketches. The site also has several other stormwater resources such finance advice and watershed education documents.
Field, R., T.N. Tafuri, S. Muthukrishnan, R.A. Acquisto and Selvakumar (2006). The Use of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in Urban Watersheds. Lancaster, PA: DEStech Publications, Inc.
A more generalized manual, not specific for any state or city, Field provides several useful chapters beginning with an overview of the importance of stormwater management, working up to specific BMP designs (Chapter 3, the most commonly used chapter) and also assessing BMP effectiveness in several charts as well as determining relative costs at the time of publication.
Hicks, Paul C. and James R. Lundy. (1998) Asphalt Pavement Design Guide. Prepared for: Asphalt Pavement Association of Oregon. Revised Oct. 2003 by Jim Huddleston, P.E.
Only Chapter 7: Design of Porous Pavements for Commercial Facilities of this guide was used.
It covers common concepts such as why it is useful, how it works, maintenance requirements and some design guidance, as well as cost aspects and pollutant removal. It is a clear easily comprehensible review of porous pavement. This chapter does not cover variations of porous pavement such as porous concrete or pervious pavers. It is strictly porous asphalt.
Hirschman, D., Collins, K., and T. Schueler. 2008. Technical Memorandum: The Runoff Reduction Method. Prepared for: Extreme BMP Makeover – Enhancing Nutrient Removal Performance for the Next Generation of Urban Stormwater BMPs in the James River Basin- and Virginia Stormwater Regulations and Handbook Technical Assistance. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
Although there are several other sections of this Memorandum (ie. review of methodology and collected data), this resource was mainly used to report estimated pollutant removal and runoff reduction percentages for individual BMPs. These estimates were based on several implemented BMPs and are reported by stormwater treatment practice, such as infiltration, bioretention and filtration. There are several helpful charts and data in this Memorandum once the methodology is clear.
Iowa State University, Iowa Stormwater Runoff Control website (IIHR). Last updated (2005). Accessed February 2009. http://dhn.iihr.uiowa.edu/runoff/showMan.php?c1=2D-3&s11=F&s12=G&s13=H
This website, created by the Iowa Stormwater Partnership, was used only for term clarification, but provides several additional resources such as factsheets with extensive information, examples and pictures. It is directed towards engineers, technicians and contractors, yet remains simplified and clear.
North Carolina Division of Water Quality (NCDWQ). (2007). Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. Raleigh, NC. Available Online at: http://dem.ehnr.state.nc.us/su/bmp_forms.htm.
This manual provides an overview of pollutant removal, feasibility considerations, advantages and disadvantages of the first page of each BMP. In addition to some of the more common BMPs, management techniques such as rooftop runoff management, restored riparian buffer, and proprietary systems each have a factsheet as well. The first few chapters also cover facts all BMPs share such as maintenance, selection processes, and common design elements. North Carolina has several credit systems, permits and requirements this manual specifically addresses; however, the factsheets are well organized and complete if particulars are discounted.
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). (2008). Urban BMP’s- Water Runoff Management. Retrieved November 2008, from http://www.wsi.nrcs.usda.gov/products/UrbanBMPs/water.html.
This website managed by the Natural Resource Conservation Service provides numerous short 1-2 page factsheets of BMPs, preventative, structural and nonstructural. They are organized by design purpose such as construction site impact reduction, erosion control and water volume management. These factsheets are very brief but with slightly more information than the Bureau of Environmental Services.
Oregon State University, GeoSyntec Consultants, University of Florida, Low Impact Development Center, Inc. (OSU). (2006) Evaluation of Best Management Practices and Low Impact Development for Highway Runoff Control, NCHRP Report 565, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
This manual was used to decipher media discrepancies between various manuals that were location specific. It is good reference for general practices, but therefore does not address site-specific conditions.
Puget Sound Action Team (PSAT), (2005). Low Impact Development: Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound. Publication No. PSAT 05-03. Washington State University Pierce County Extension. Olympia, WA.
Puget Sound is well known for its stormwater and water quality efforts. Their manual produced by the Puget Sound Action Team provides a wide range of information from stormwater planning and preliminary mapping to hydrologic modeling techniques. It is directed at a diversity of users and in some cases can be quite complex. In many cases it references the Western Washington Hydrologic Model developed to aid in determining runoff of a site and size BMPs, a more complex routing model. In addition, the Puget Sound Partnership has a well organized and informative website with several resources focused on water quality and not limited to stormwater. http://www.psp.wa.gov/
Purdue Research Foundation (PRF). (2004). “SCS Curve Number Method”. Accessed April 2009. http://www.ecn.purdue.edu/runoff/documentation/scs.htm.
Used for information regarding the curve number method. The home site, “Impacts of Land Use Change on Water Resources”, has several additional resources including a tool to calculate long-term environmental impacts of land use changes.
Rain Garden Network (RGN). (2009) "Building a Rain Garden". 2003-2009. Accessed February 2009. http://www.raingardennetwork.com/build.htm
Southeast Michigan Council Of Governments (LIDMM). (2008). Low Impact Development Manual for Michigan: A design Guide for implementers and reviewers. Detroit, MI.
A concise yet sufficiently informative, the factsheets of various BMPs both non-structural and structural as well as pretreatment devices in this manual are summarized in a chart on the first page. The factsheet then provides a case study including cost, giving the BMP context and authenticity. The remainder of the factsheet provides design information, calculations and several figures. The manual also provides chapters for LID development and preparation. This manual was used primarily for porous pavement and infiltration test information.
Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD). (1999) (Revised 2008) Drainage Criteria Manual (Vol 3). Denver, CO. Available Online at: http://udfcd.org/downloads/down_critmanual.htm#vol3
Mainly Chapter 4: Structural Best Management Practices was used from this manual for factsheet reference and creation. This manual has abundant calculations and detailed instructions for material and construction at times very specific to Colorado. There are several types of porous pavement covered but BMPs such as vegetated filter strips are missing.
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR). (2006). Soils and Water Conservation Programs. Virginia Stormwater Management Program. Richmond VA. Retrieved February 2009 from: http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/soil_&_water/stormwat.shtml.
Washington State Department of Transportation (WDOT). (2009). Environment – Research: Stormwater Research Reports. Retrieved February 2009 from: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Environment/WaterQuality/Research/Reports.htm
This manual was not referenced other than for figures. However, the website has several reports and documentation of BMP implementation and use.
Washington State Department of Ecology Water Quality Program (WSDOE). (2005). Stormwater Management in Western Washington: Volume III: Hydrologic Analysis and Flow Control Design/BMPs. Pub. No. 05-10-31. Olympia, WA. Retrieved March 2009 from: http://www.eco-3.com/WSDOE.htm
Although this chapter is dedicated to methods of infiltration investigation and determination, it was used primarily to report methods for the Pilot Infiltration Test.
Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). (2008). Highway Runoff Manual. M 31-16.01. Olympia, WA. Retrieved April 2009 from: http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Publications/Manuals/M31-16.htm.
This manual was used to get a better understanding of infiltration tests.
Native Plant List References
Calflora (2009). Accessed at: http://www.calflora.org/
Specific to California, this website shows distribution of individual plants only for California. However, provides many photographs as well as information regarding habitat and includes a helpful search engine.
City of Portland: Bureau of Environmental Services (PSMM). (2008) Portland Stormwater Management Manual. Portland, OR. Available Online at: http://www.portlandonline.com/BES/index.cfm?c=47952
The facility plant lists in Appendix F4 (chart form) provide a list of plants and the stormwater facilities they work best with as well as which zone of they prefer. Zones refer to how much water inundation the plant will receive (bottom vs. upland). The chart also provides native status, height, spacing suggestions for planting and if the plant is an evergreen.
Cooke, Sarah S. (Ed.). (1997). A Field Guide to the Common Wetland Plants of Western Washington and Northwestern Oregon. Seattle, WA: Seattle Audubon Society.
This book provides a narrative description of individual wetlands plants. It covers information such as habitat range, similar species, range, functional value, ethnobotanical uses, and wetland status.
Bureau of Planning (BOP). (2004). Portland Plant List. Portland, OR. Available at: http://www.portlandonline.com/shared/cfm/image.cfm?id=58951
This plant list is organized in two forms. There is a brief narrative description of plants native to the Portland, OR area with a few statistics, such as height, growth rate, availability and habitat. Secondly, plants are listed in a chart form with similar information as well as a wetland indicator. A separate plant list report nuisance and prohibited plants within the city of Portland.
Linn Soil and Water Conservation District (LSWCD). (1998). Guide for Using Willamette Valley Native Plants Along Your Stream. Available at: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/watershed/indoors/willamette_native_plants.pdf
Focusing on the Oregon’s Willamette Valley native plants, this guide gives a brief description of a plant along with characteristics such as bank stabilization, sun preference, and wildlife attraction.
Oregon State University Extension Service (OSUES). (2005). Gardening with Oregon Native Plants West of the Cascades. Corvallis, OR. Oregon State University. Available at: http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/ec/ec1577/
This guide, reprinted in 2008, has a very brief description of plants with a few characteristics such as drought tolerance and sun preference as well as wildlife attractants. It is a smaller guide, but complete with photographs of each plant.
Oregon State University Extension Service (OSUES). (2005b). An Introduction to Xeriscaping in the High Desert and Pictorial Plant Guide for Central & Eastern Oregon. Corvallis, OR. Oregon State University.
This is a guide for central and eastern Oregon, but has several drought tolerant species. It is set up similarly to the OSU Extension’s “Gardening with Oregon Native Plants West of the Cascades” and also contains photographs.
Oregon State University Extension Service (OSUES). (2008). GardenSmart Oregon: A guide to non-invasive plants. Corvallis, OR. Oregon State University.
Not only does this guide provide information about native plants, but it also identifies noxious plants and recommends alternative and ornamental native plants to replace noxious plants. Photographs of each plant are not abundant, but information includes water needs, sun preferences, and whether the plant is evergreen or deciduous.
Pojar, J. and Andy MacKinnon (Eds.) (1994). Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast: Washington, Oregon, British Columbia & Alaska. Canada: B.C. Ministry of Forests and Lone Pine Publishing.
A thorough book with a few pictures per plant species, this book provides a location map describing where the plant is found along the Northwest coast, general information such as height as well as helpful physical identifying properties and an ecological description of the plants favored habitat. There is also an extensive note section describing historic uses and long-term growth patterns.
Rose, Robin, Caryn E.C. Chachulski and Diane L. Haase (Rose et al 1998). Propagation of Pacific Northwest Native Plants. (1998). Corvallis, OR. Oregon State Univeristy.
This resource is available on line to OSU students and faculty. It provides an occasional sketch of plants and a brief plant description, it’s habitat/range and propagation properties. The reference was used to confirm popular native plants to the study area.
Shaw, Dan, and Rusty Schmidt. (2003). Plants for Stormwater Design Species Selection for the Upper Midwest Vol. I. St. Paul, MN. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Available at: http://www.pca.state.mn.us/publications/manuals/stormwaterplants.html.
Though specific for the Midwest, this reference offers a handful of plants native to the Oregon coast. The information is specific to stormwater management and easy to follow. It reports soils, light, pH, salt, normal water levels and flooding tolerance. Normal water levels and flooding tolerances are presented in creative diagram. Additional information includes design considerations, concerns and wildlife uses. It also indicates how widely available the plant can be found in nurseries.
USDA, NRCS. 2009. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Accessed through August 2009 at http://plants.usda.gov.
This database was one of the primary sources consulted for the creation of the native plant list. It allows a user to search for plants in a variety of methods and provides a wealth of information and characteristics describing the plant from it’s growth form, and pictures to morphology, growth requirements, reproduction and suitability or use. Two of the most helpful characteristics were wetland indicator status and noxious or endangered status.
Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Western Washington (WSUCE). (2009). Gardening in Western Washington: Native Plants. Pullman, WA. Available at: http://gardening.wsu.edu/
Used primarily for verifying common native plants to the area, this online database provides several pictures with a brief description about the plant. It covers habitat, advantages/disadvantages, propagation and growing environment. Other sections of the website offer a wealth of gardening advice and information.
Prior Existing References -Part of Plant List
1. Vegetation Survey Report for Landscaped Stormwater Management Facilities, Bureau of Environmental Services, City of Portland, March 2007
2. Xeriscaping in the High Desert, OSU Extension Service, 2005
3. Water-Efficient Landscape Plants, OSU Extension Service, 2004
4. Laura Masterson, Yamhill County Cooperative Extension Agent
5. Tillamook Cooperative Extension, Master Gardeners (Stephenson and Sip)
6. URS Corporation, Create Your Own Rain Garden brochure
7. East Multnomah Soil and Water Conservation District
Bates, Robert L. and Julia A. Jackson. (1984). Dictionary of Geologic Terms. Random House Inc., New York, New York. PSAT 2005, CWP&CSN 2008
IIHR- Hydroscience nad Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa Stormwater Partnership, Iowa Univeristy page last updated 2005. Accessed at: http://dhn.iihr.uiowa.edu/runoff/showMan.php?c1=2D-3&s11=F&s12=G&s13=H
Model Documentation References
- Michael will provide this
Additional References throughout the project
Hager, Mary Catherine. “Low-Impact Development.” 1993 Stormwater. Vol. 4 No.1. 10 Sept. 2008.< http://www.stormh2o.com/january-february-2003/stormwater-management-low-impact-development.aspx>.