Wine grape tissue nutrient analysis guidelines for Oregon

Vine Nutrition Guidelines for Oregon Wine Grape Vineyards
Nutrient Sample timing Units Petiole Deficient Petiole Excessive Leaf Blade - Deficient Leaf Blade - Safe/Healthy Lead Blade - Excessive
N Bloom % 0.60 - 0.70 Petiole Excessive 2.20 > 2.40 4.25
N Veraison % 0.35 - 0.40   1.80 > 2.00 2.50
P Bloom % 0.15   0.17 > 0.20  
P Veraison % 0.05   0.10 > 0.12  
K Bloom % 0.75 - 1.50 3.25 0.70 > 0.80 1.5
K Veraison % 0.50 - 0.60   0.60 > 0.70 1.25
Ca Bloom/Veraison % 0.9 - 1.0   0.9 -1.0 > 1.00  
Mg Bloom/Veraison % 0.20 - 0.50   0.10 - 0.20 > 0.25  
Mn Bloom/Veraison ppm 20   20 > 20  
Zn Bloom/Veraison ppm 20-25   15-20 > 20  
B Bloom/Veraison ppm 20-25 125 15 - 20 > 20 250
Cu Bloom/Veraison ppm 3 - 5 25 - 50 2- 5 > 5  

Data shown are based on nutrition research for wine grapes in Oregon with comparison to other regions. Deficient levels for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are well characterized for Pinot noir. Veraison samples are more reliable than bloom samples for diagnosing most nutrients. Levels from leaf blades at veraison are more reliable than petioles for diagnosing N, P, K, and Mg. Source: Paul Schreiner, USDA-ARS, Hort Crops Research Lab, Corvallis, OR.

Rationale/ Considerations for Critical Nutrient Levels in Oregon Wine Grapes

  • N, P & K - derived from microplot studies based on growth, yield, fermentation & wine composition of Pinot noir. (Schreiner et. al. 2013, 2018a & b)
  • Ca - based on lowest observed levels in healthy, productive Oregon vineyards. 
    • Note: A German standard for deficient Ca was reported as 2.0% in veraison leaf blades (Gartel 1996), but values of 0.8% & 1.0% have been recorded in Oregon lead blades at bloom % veraison, respectively. A French standard was defined as 0.5% bloom leaf blades (Champagnol 1984).
  • Mg - based on presence of leaf symptoms in Pinot noir & Chardonnay
    • Note: Only leaf blades have been useful in diagnosing vines expressed obvious symptoms and levels have been below 0.10%. However, leaf blade values of 0.20% in routine samples prior to symptom development have later expressed Mg deficiency.
  • Zn - levels reported here are fairly conservative, and require more work.
    • Leaf blades with Zn as low as 8-10 ppm & petioles as low as 17-23 ppm have been observed in a few cases in healthy Oregon vineyards. but critical Zn levels likely vary by cultivar and Zn deficiency causes severe stunting of shoots, tiny leaves and shot berries. 
  • B - levels reported here are fairly conservative, and also require more work. 
    • Lead blades as low as 12 ppm & petioles as low as 15 ppm are routinely observed in a healthy Pinot noir vineyard near Salem, but B deficiency also causes severe growth problems and poor set.
  • Cu - levels based on healthy microplot and Oregon vineyards
    • Lead blades & petioles with as little as 2 ppm Cu have not caused growth problem, leaf symptoms or reduced rates of photosynthesis.
Quantity of Macro-Nutrients Needed by the Canopy & Actual Uptake from Soil from Budbreak until Harvest in 4 year-old & 22 year-old Pinot noir grapevines in Oregon (reported in pounds/acre).
Nutrient Canopy Demand (4-yr-old) Canopy Demand (22-yr-old) Uptake from Soil (4-yr-old) Uptake from Soil (22-yr-old)
N 14 30 12 14
P 2.1 3.1 3.0 2.1
K 21 33 25 28
Ca 21 22 27 21
Mg 3.5 8.9 4.1 8.3
When are Nutrients Taken Up from Soil 22 year-old own-rooted Pinot noir Woodhall Research Vineyard (2001 & 2002 Average Values) 12
Nutrient Budbreak - Bloom Bloom - Veraison Veraison - Harvest Post Harvest
N 53 % 30 % 5 % 12 %
P 45 % 46% 1 % 4 %
K 26 % 53 % 21 % 0 %
Ca 28 % 58 % 14 % 0 %
Mg 21 % 55 % 24 % 0 %
When are Nutrients Taken Up from Soil 4 year - old grafted Pinot noir in Microplots (2007 & 2008 Average Values)3
Nutrient Budbreak - Bloom Bloom - Veraison Veraison - Harvest Post Harvest
N 58 % 25 % 1 % 16 %
P 35 % 42 % 19 % 4 %
K 21 % 66 % 13 % 0
Ca 14 % 52 % 34 %  0
Mg 16 % 60 % 24 % 0
S 40 % 51 % 9 % 0
Mn 29 % 54 % 17 % 0
B 45 % 45 % 10 % 0
Zn 16 % 57 % 27 % 0
Cu 26 % 43 % 31 % 0
  • 1. Micro-Nutrients were too variable to accurately quantify uptake.
  • 2. From: Schreiner RP, Scagel CF and Braham J. 2006. Nutrient uptake and distribution in a mature 'Pinor noir' vineyard. HortScience 41: 336- 345.
  • 3. From: Schreiner RP. 2016. Nutrient uptake and distribution in young Pinot noir grapevines over two seasons. Am J Enol Vitic 67:436-448.

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