This publication provides direction on estimating soil moisture by the "feel and appearance" method; taking a some soil and rolling it up in a ball then squeezing it between your thumb and forefinger to form a ribbon and noting how it appears and feels. Compare what you see with photographs and/or charts to estimate percent water available and the inches depleted below field capacity.
Late summer and fall are critical times for proper pasture management. Check out this fact sheet and begin to understand plant and root growth in the Fall.
Gardeners with small-scale orchards can take advantage of hazelnut varieties bred in recent years at Oregon State University that resist eastern filbert blight.