Framed or mounded, raised beds give plant roots the space they need
This article describes how to determine vineyard nutrient needs through tissue and soil sampling.
Gardening in raised beds has been a common practice for centuries. "Raised" means the soil level in the bed is higher than its surrounding, and "bed" implies it is small enough to work from the walkways.
Information on vineyard water management, focusing on when to initiate irrigation.
This is a guide that can be used by wine grape growers to interpret their vine tissue nutrient analysis results to determine nutrient sufficiency, deficiency or excess.
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All grapes require heavy pruning to produce fruit, but after the first three growing seasons, different types of grapes need different pruning. Wine grapes and muscadines usually need spur pruning, and American grapes, such as Concord and Thompson Seedless require cane pruning.