I have heard about applying lime to my lawn and garden to improve my soil. Can I use the pictured product, and how would I apply it? There are no application directions.
Do not apply this product! This is hydrated (slaked) lime, and it is not safe to apply to your lawn or vegetable garden.
To apply calcium to your soil or to increase the pH, use agricultural lime. It is calcium carbonate. It's absolutely slower to react with soils and skin, making it safer for you and for the environment.
Dangers of hydrated lime
Hydrated lime is a strong base that causes rapid chemical reactions, and would be dangerous for you to handle without protective gear.
When it comes into contact with the skin, it causes chemical burns. If the dust is inhaled, it causes chemical burns right down into your lungs.
From a soil health/gardening perspective, you should understand that a rapid chemical reaction will combine soil carbon (soil organic matter) with the hydroxide group, releasing the soil carbon as CO2 far faster than any bacterial reaction.
To dispose of this product, I'd contact the trash service and ask when the next toxic waste event was coming up. They will be able to send it along to someone who can use it for an appropriate (likely industrial) purpose. In the meantime, place that sack of chemicals into a heavy-weight plastic trashbag, tie the bag shut, and put it into a covered trashcan. Don't store anything else in the trashcan.