What's a petiole? Botany terms explained

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  • Anther — The pollen sac on a male flower.
  • Apex — The tip of a shoot or root.
  • Apical dominance — The tendency of an apical bud to produce hormones that suppress the growth of buds below it on the stem.
  • Axil — The location where a leaf joins a stem.
  • Cambium — A layer of growing tissue that separates the xylem and pholem and continuously produces new xylem and pholem cells.
  • Chlorophyll — The green pigment in leaves that is responsible for trapping light energy from the sun.
  • Chloroplast — A specialized component of certain cells; contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthesis.
  • Cortex — Cells that make up the primary tissue of the root and stem.
  • Cotyledon — The first leaf that appears on a seedling. Also called a seed leaf.
  • Cuticle — A relatively impermeable surface layer on the epidermis of leaves and fruits.
  • Dicot — Having two seed leaves.
  • Epidermis — The outermost layer of plant cells.
  • Guard cell — Epidermal cells that open and close to let water, oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through the stomata.
  • Internode — The space between nodes on a stem.
  • Meristem — Specialized groups of cells that are a plant's growing points.
  • Mesophyll — A leaf's inner tissue, located between the upper and lower epidermis; contains the chloroplasts and other specialized cellular parts (organelles).
  • Monocot — Having one seed leaf.
  • Node — An area on a stem where a leaf, stem or flower bud is located.
  • Ovary — The part of a female flower where eggs are located.
  • Petiole — The stalk that attaches a leaf to a stem.
  • Pholem — Photosynthate-conducting tissue.
  • Photosynthate — A food product (sugar or starch) created through photosynthesis.
  • Photosynthesis — The process in green plants of converting carbon dioxide and water into food (sugars and starches) using energy from sunlight.
  • Pistil — The female flower part; consists of a stigma, style and ovary.
  • Respiration — The process of converting sugars and starches into energy.
  • Stamen — The male flower part; consists of an anther and a supporting filament.
  • Stigma — The top of a female flower part; collects pollen.
  • Stoma (pl. stomates, stomata) — Tiny openings in the epidermis that allow water, oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass into and out of a plant.
  • Style — The part of the female flower that connects the stigma to the ovary. Pollen travels down the style to reach the ovary, where fertilization occurs.
  • Transpiration — The process of losing water (in the form of vapor) through stomata.
  • Turgor — Cellular water pressure; responsible for keeping cells firm.
  • Vascular tissue — Water-, nutrient-, and photosynthate-conducting tissue (xylem and pholem).
  • Xylem — Water- and nutrient-conducting tissue.
Previously titled
Botany terms explained

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