Slow to moderate growth rates, may reach over 3’ in diameter and 150’ tall at maturity. Long-lived. Very heat and drought tolerant but also somewhat tolerant of seasonally flooded or poorly drained soils. Not common along interior Jackson County streams but may have been more abundant on these sites historically. Frequently planted on zone 3 terraces because it is one of the few species that will survive there. Good long term source of woody debris.


Frequently planted as a bare-root seedling. Container stock may also be available.

Natural Regeneration

By seed only. Good seed years occur every 4-6 years. Germination is best on mineral soil.

  • Streamside Planting Zones: 2-3
  • Tolerance to flooding: MEDIUM
  • Tolerance to shade: LOW
  • Tolerance to drought: HIGH

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