Winter annual; fall or early spring germination. Flowers are a light purple to pink color, blooming in May. Seeds are black with a stiff fringe.


Potential rangeland threat, similar to knapweeds. Limited known sites make eradication a consideration.

Chemical Control

Control efforts must be taken early in the spring. Range management and competitive grass stands may prove to be the most effective long term control. Contact your local weed control supervisor for additional information.

Biological Control

5 to 6 potential agents have been identified in Europe. Further research is continuing. Earliest possible field releases - 1999.

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