Sherman County is frequently referred to as the "Land Between the Rivers." Located in north central Oregon, the Columbia river forms the northern border, while the east and west boundaries are marked by the steep, deep canyons of the John Day River on the east and the Deschutes River on the west. The rugged canyons of Buck Hollow, a tributary of the Deschutes, mark the southwest border.
Sherman County is also known as "the Land of Wheat." Encompassing a total of 531,840 acres (831 square miles; approximately 20 miles wide and 42 miles long), nearly 58% of the county's land is tilled and soft white winter wheat is the major crop. In fact, Sherman County is annually the third largest wheat producing county in Oregon, despite being 29th out of 36 counties in size. However, the 58% of land tilled ranks number one, far above the state average of 8% of tilled land per county. Sherman County is the only county in Oregon without natural forestation.